I thought that I could make an easier face mask with AHA fruit acids. The fruit acids are a lot easier to formulate with then glycolic acid. Still as a disclaimer, formulating with acids is not for beginners. This requires that you have good knowledge on acids and bases, a pH meter, and know how to handle them safely. With any acid, it increases your sun sensitivity. So be sure to at least wear sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or higher for two weeks after use. You should be wearing sunscreen year round, but I needed to make that disclaimer.
The benefit of AHA fruit acids is they can be at a pH of 4.5 to work.
The only thing I am going to change from the glycolic acid one is the glycolic acid. Let's review my formulation decisions from last post (from the diamond level blog).
I have been making a lot of gels, so I want to make this one emulsion-based. This will complicate some things, but it will be great experience.
You will want to make at least 200g. That may seem like a lot, but we do need to test this and make sure we have enough to use a stick blender. I am going to make 300g so that I will have plenty. This also will account for needing to take multiple pH readings. As this formulation will need to be pH adjusted.
For the formulation, I want to keep it simple. For a humectant, I want to use propylene glycol. Propylene glycol is not greasy at all so I am going to use it at 5%. This is not natural so if you want a substitution check the substitution section.
For the emulsifier, we need to be careful, as it is going to be very acidic. Any emulsifier that has glyceryl stearate cannot be used. Emulsifying wax NF, Polawax, and another non-ionic emulsifier could be used. I am going to use Polawax. For Polawax specifically, you use 25% of the oil phase. I am only going to use 12% oil. Depending on the skin type you are formulating for, you may want to alter this percentage. If you wanted to make this for mature skin, let's say, you could increase the oil-phase percentage and use some heaver oils. For the oils, I will use jojoba oil, rose hip seed oil, and macadamia nut oil. They are all great for oily and acne-prone skin. Jojoba oil is a liquid wax. Rosehip seed oil is said to have some natural vitamin A. Macadamia nut oil is very lightweight. I am going to use 4% of each. However, I want to add 2% cetyl alcohol, so I will only use 2% rose hip seed oil. I also need to include vitamin E at 0.10%. I am going to reduce the jojoba oil to 3.90% to compensate.
Based on the calculation, I am going to use 3% Polawax in my formulation.
To preserve this formulation we need one that can withstand the low pH. My go to is liquid germall plus, but you could use Geogard ECT here. Due to the benzyl alcohol it does smell like almonds. So, I will would not add any fragrance to it. I will use it at 1%.
So let's see the formulation.
Sanitize all your equipment, containers, and workspace. Gather all your ingredients and make sure that your notebook is set up. In a glass beaker, add all your phase A ingredients. Stir until the ingredients are uniform. Pour into final packaging. Be sure to label and date your latest formulation
Disinfect all glassware, utensils, and workspace with 70% Isopropyl Alcohol. Gather all your ingredients and make sure that your notebook is set up.
Measure the beaker phase A and write down the weight in your notebook. Make sure to include if you have a spatula or lab spoon in it. Heat in a double boiler for 20 minutes.
To create a double boiler, grab a pan and add some water to it. This should be tap water. Add as much water to the pan as needed. It should be high enough that the ingredients are submerged, but not high enough that water could splash into your beakers. Add your phase A in the pan. Turn on the heat to low.
In a separate beaker, add some distilled water. The amount will depend on the batch size. This will be used to make the water that evaporates during heating. That is why we measured the water beforehand. Add this to the double boiler. I weighed about 20-30 grams for reference and added about 10 grams to a 200g batch. You can use the water after for another formulation. Just do not pour it back into your bottle.
Combine phase B ingredients in a different glass beaker. This is the oil-phase
Heat phases A and B and the extra distilled water in a double boiler until the wax is melted, and both phases are roughly the same temperature 70 degrees C. Heat and hold for 20 minutes. During this time, you can take notes, weigh out your cool down in a glass prep cup, or get your scale ready for the next part.
Prep you scale; after the 20 minutes, you want to work quickly. You will take the water off the double boiler and weigh it out. If you had a lab spoon or Nor Pro icing spatula, make sure that is in there. Compare it to the number you wrote down. Add the amount of water lost during the heating. Heat can affect the scale, so you want to protect it with something. I use a silicone pad that I got from the dollar store. The $20 scales have plastic covers; use those.
Take both off the heat, pour the water phase into the oil phase and apply high shear stick blender. It is going to be very hit and liquid so start by pulsing it and work your way up to blending it fully.
Blend for 2-5 minutes. As the lotion is cooling, let pulse it with a stick blender. I would do this every ten minutes. Do this until below 110 degrees or when your Phase C cool-down ingredients are allowed to be added in.
Add all your other cool-down ingredients. Then let fully cool to room temperature.
Check and adjust the pH to 3.5.
Pour into final packaging. Be sure to label and date your latest formulation.
Adjusting pH (Dilution Method): Get two beakers; one will be used as our washing beaker, and the other will be used to make the dilutions. The main thing with making dilutions is you want to make enough that the probe can be covered. You can weigh out 1 gram of product and 9 grams of distilled water to make a 10% dilution. Or you can weigh out 2 grams of product and then 18 grams of distilled water. Get your pH meter out and rinse with distilled water into the other beaker I had you get. Dry off the meter with a lint-free product. Mix it well and take the pH. If you are using strips, do not make a diluted solution no matter the viscosity; or the pH will be way off. Do not put the strips directly into the product. Even if you are taking the pH of the product directly, you want to add your product into a separate beaker. Wait for the reading to be stable, take a note of the pH, and discard the Sample after. Then put the product on the scale and tare it. Add 0.10g either the 50:50 citric acid solution (to lower the pH), the sodium hydroxide (to raise the pH), or TEA (to raise the pH of the product). Stir well, then wait at least 1 minute before making another dilution. Keep repeating the process until you get the desired pH. You will be surprised how much it may take. I recommend making a bigger batch than you want so you can account for that.
Substitutions and Alterations:
Substituting ingredients will change the final feel, viscosity, and overall effect of final product. percentages and formulating procedure may need to change with substitutions. These substitution suggestions are just suggestions and have not been tested to work.
To find out where to purchase ingredients check out the ingredient suppler page (only on the diamond level blog.
Propylene glycol you can substitute for another humectant.
You can use other oils.
If you want to increase the viscosity, you can increase the oil phase.
See comments on emulsifiers for substitutions.
I hope that you got something from this post. Let me know in the comments below what you think. Don’t forget to tag me in your posts if you make this formulation. I would love to see them. Use the #cosmeticyourways to be featured.
I hope you learned something new from this post. As always, if you have any questions, comments, or concerns, do let me know in the comments below. Thank you. Have a wonderful day.
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